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Titanium Dioxide

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Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium (IV) oxide or Titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white.

Physically Titanium Dioxide Pigments are found in white powder form. High obscurity is present in these pigment powder. These pigment powders have very good whiteness, very high covering capacity, and good retardation capacity. And, due to these properties, the titanium dioxide pigments have a wide range of application and are considered valuable. These pigments are used in manufacturing of ink, plastic goods, paper, paints etc.

Common physical and mechanical properties of Titania (sintered titanium)

Property Values
Compressive Strength 680 MPa
Modulus of Rupture 140 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0.27
Dielectric Constant (1 MHz) 85
Shear Modulus 90 GPa
Micro Hardness(HVO .5) 880
Dissipation Factor (1 M Hz) 5*/10 to the power 4
Resistivity (25 degree C) 10 to the power 12 ohm.cm
Resistivity (700 degree C) 2.5*10 to the power 4 ohm.cm
Dielectric Strength 4 KV/mm
Thermal expansion(RT-1000 degree C) 9*/10 to the power 6
Thermal Conductivity(25 degree C) 11.7 W/mk
Modulus of Electricity 230 GPa
Porosity 0%
Density 4 gm/meter cube

Applications of Titanium Dioxide

Sintered titanium has relatively poor mechanical properties, so its applications are constrained.

Use of Titanium Dioxide as a pigment

The most common form of titanium dioxide as pigment substance is its powder form. As a pigment, it provides whiteness and opacity to paints and coatings, plastics, paper, inks, food, cosmetic and fibers.

The most common form of titanium dioxide as a pigment is white pigment. This is because, it is very white and very high refractive index.

The bright whiteness and high refractive index of titanium dioxide make it to become as an effective opacifier for pigments. It is also used as an opacifier in cosmetics, sunscreen, paper, paints etc.

Formation processes of Titanium Dioxide Pigments

These pigments are derived by processing the naturally occurring rutiles or ilmenite minerals. Both, the rutiles and ilmenite are the ores of titanium dioxide.

Manufacturing technologies of Titanium Dioxide Pigments

The processes of manufacturing Titanium Dioxide Pigments include:

Sulphate Process
It is the first process that was used to convert ilmenite into titanium dioxide. Some sulphate process plants have been built to produce a very big quantity of waste iron sulfate and to manufacture low quality products for most of the applications. Through the process, the pigments produced are called anatase. These pigments are used mainly used in the paper industry, ceramics and inks manufacturing.

Chlorine Process
In this process, the chlorine reacts to synthetic rutile and form volatile titanium tetrachloride. Later on, this is oxidized to obtain iron chloride and other impurities. To produce 5-6 tonnes of titanium dioxide pigments, about one tonne of chlorine is needed. Chlorine process has been separated into another subprocess that is called Chloride Process.

Chloride process
This process requires to get processed from ilmenite into rutile form. It means to remove the iron components to obtain crude titanium dioxide that is also called synthetic rutile. To obtain 1 tonne of Titanium dioxide pigments, 1.6 tonne synthetic rutile is required.

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