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Acid Dye- Applied to polyamide fibres from acidic solutions.
Essentially synthetic dyes, they are used for silk, wool and nylon.
Affinity- In dyeing, affinity means the preferential attraction of dye
towards fibre rather than for solution of the dye bath. A dye that has
strong affinity easily leaves the dye solution of dispersion and attaches
itself to the fibre being dyed.
Aniline- Aniline is a very commonly used term in the synthesis of
dyes. Chemical formula - C6H7N. Also known as aniline oil and used as a sort
of synonym for synthetic dyes.
Azo- Azo refers to a chemical compound that contains double nitrogen
atoms with a double bond between them (-N=N-). Azo dyes forms the largest
group of dyes and display light-fastness, stability, strongness and respond
well to mixing. Azo dyes may be found among the dye classes of direct, acid,
basic, reactive and disperse.
Basic Dye- Basic dyes are generally
cationic dyes. Basic dyes are the dyes that is able to react with acidic
groups on fibres.
Bifunctional Reactive Dye- These dyes are designed for having the
potential to react with the fibre in more than a single way.
Binder- A colorless material used to attach a pigment to fabric.
Binders are like "glue" that holds the pigment in place. Example:
Paints that has pigments mixed with binders.
Cation- Known as the positively charged
ion. Numerous chemicals applied in textile processing are referred to as
Cellulose- A polymer consisting of a large numbers of units, each of
the general formula represented by C6H10O5.
Chromophore- A color-bearing compound that has a special property
found in an organic molecule which make it appear colored.
Colour Index- A publication jointly brought out by the Society of
Dyers and Colorists of Great Britain and the American Association of Textile
Chemists and Colorists.
Chrome- Any salt of chromium, that is used in tanning and dyeing.
Direct application- A method usually used
to describe a process where a solution of dye is locally applied to
different areas of fabric, like squirting, painting, spraying, stamping,
Direct Dye- A dye that is carried out by immersing the fibre in a
dye solution without any requirement of other chemicals for bonding the dye
to the fibres.
Disperse Dye- Disperse dyes are found in the dye bath as a kind of
suspension or dispersion of microscopic particles, with only a minuscule
amount in true solution at any given moment of time.
Enzyme- Enzymes are now popularly used in
textile processing. These are the type of protein that perform the role of a
catalyst in a biochemical reaction. Examples: Amylase - applied for
desizing; Cellulase - Used in modification of cellulosic fabrics.
Exhaust Dyeing- Exhaust Dyeing is used for denoting the application
of a dye bath of a moderately larger liquor to goods ratio, where the fibre
is immersed for a while. It allows the dye molecules to exit the bath and
get attach to the fibres.
FBA- Fluorescent brightening agent.
Fixation- Fixation refers to the formation of a sort of final bond
between the fibre and dye. The bond type formed changes with the type of dye
and the fibre.
Gel Dyeing- A continuous type of
tow-dyeing method where soluble dyes are used to wet-spun fibres in the gel
state (i.e. After the processes of extrusion and coagulation, but before
drying and drawing).
Hardness- A measurement that ascertains
the content of minerals that imparts specific properties.
Illuminating Dye- A dye that is mixed
with discharge paste in printing methods also referred to as head dyes.
Indigo- A sort of natural or synthetic vat dye given the designation
of Color Index Vat Blue 1. Indigo is perhaps one of the oldest colorants
that is used for textiles. Originally extraction was done from plants, but
now it is usually synthetic.
Jet Dyeing- Used in dyeing of Polyester.
Kilogram- An unit of mass (weight) in the
system of metric. It equals approximately 2.2 pounds avoirdupois.
Lake- The pigments that are produced as a
result of absorption of the dye on the substrate. Most common substrate can
be alumina hydrate.
Liquor ratio (also liquor to goods ratio)- The ratio that is used to
denote the weight of the dyebath or any other processing bath to the weight
of goods that is being dyed or processed.
Lightfastness- Light Fastness is typically used as measurement to
ascertain how resistant a coloring material, such as dye would be fading
when exposed to light.
Metal- Complex Dye- A dye that typically
has co-ordinated metal atoms in its molecule.
Mordant- Chemicals that helps in attachment of dyestuff to fibres by
bonding to the fibre as well as to the dye.
Non-ionic - A chemical that does not
ionize in a solution while remaining is in intact molecular form some
surfactants are non-ionic.
No-wick HF- Used with Liquid Decorator Colors, for enabling fine
pH- A perfect measure of the
concentration of hydronium that is found in a solution.
Pigment- A substance used in the particulate form that is
substantially insoluble in a medium.
Reactive Dye- A dye that, under proper
conditions, can react chemically with a substrate for forming a covalent
Retayne- A type of cationic dye fixing agent. Typically used on
cotton fabrics for improving wet fastness of the direct dyes and to add
color paper pulp.
Sodium Hydroxide- It is a strong base;
also called caustic soda or lye, or just "caustic" in dyeing
terms. Chemical Formula: NaOH.
Sulphur Dye- A dye, that contains sulphur as an integral part of the
chromophore and as well as in attached polysulphide chains. Sulphur dyes are
not soluble in water, and must get converted to a soluble form before
Sublimation- It is the conversion of solid directly into gas,
without passing through the liquid phase.
Tannic Acid- A mixture of compounds
derived from natural sources like oak. Tannic acid treatment, followed by a
treatment of tartar emetic, has been reported to improve the wash fastness
of dyed nylon or wool.
Ultraviolet- The light that is beyond the
portion that is visible of the light spectrum at the blue end. It is the
Ultraviolet light that causes fading of colors, and makes fluorescent
Union Dye- A dye that is generally a mixture of two or more
different classes of dye. It is used to dye blends of fibres.
Vat Dye- Vat dyes are water-insoluble dye
containing keto groups, which is normally applied to the fibre from an
aqueous alkaline solution of the reduced enol (leuco) form, that
subsequently gets oxidised in the fibre to an insoluble form.
Vinyl Sulphone- Vinyl sulphone reactive dyes are generally
intermediate in their reactivity, so they are used above room temperature,
but considerably below the boiling point of water. These are typically used
for cellulosic fibres and with some use for wool also.
Washfastness- Washfastness is used to
measure resistance of a dye to washing out.
Wetting Agent- A chemical that helps the water to penetrate a
material or to form a film over its surface; usually it is a surfactant.
Wetting agents are generally used in the dyeing process where it helps the
dye solution to penetrate to the individual fibres.
Yarn Dyeing- Yarn gets dyed before being
woven into fabric.
Zinc Formaldehyde Sulphoxylate- A Color
Index Reducing Agent 6, used for application in discharge.