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Now a days, the world market is flourishing with several new types of
pigments that are used for coloring the glass equipments. In past, the
various kind of impurities were responsible for producing colors in the
glass equipments. For example, in the 17th century, in the 'black bottle
glasses', the color dark brown or green was found due to the present of iron
impurities. These impurities came in these glasses from two sources. One,
and was used to make these glasses and second, sulphur from the smoke of the
burning coal was used for melting these glasses.
But, today, the glass is colored by using various kinds of pigments
(Purified metal salts). Some ancient examples of colored glass are: ruby
glass (gold chloride is used as a pigment, invented in 1679), uranium glass
(uranium oxide is oxide as a pigment, invented in the year 1830). It doesn't
mean that, for every time, the colored glasses are useful. Sometimes, we
need such glass, which is free from any color. At that time, we have to
removed the unwanted color from the glass. The process of removing the color
is called as Decolorizing process. Some commonly used decolorizing agents
are: Manganese dioxide and Cerium Oxide.
Special Effects in Glasses By Using Pigments
Special color effect can be generated in the
glasses by using some pigments either individually or in the combined form
with other types of pigments. For example, Iridescent glass (Iris glass) has
a special coloring effect. This coloring effect in the iris glass can be
generated by adding some metallic compounds (pigments). Sometimes, the
coloring effect, in the iris glass can be generated by spraying its surface
with lead chloride and then heating it in the present of reducing agent.
Another colored glass is Dichroic glass. From different angles, the color in
the glass seems to be changed. This is happened because, a very thin layer
of colloidal metals (gold or silver) is applied on the surface of the glass.
Some pigments and their coloring effects in glass
|Name of Pigment Compounds
||Deep Amber, Amethyst, Decolorizer
|Mix of Manganese, Cobalt, Iron Black, Antimony Oxide
||Light Blue, Red
|Lead with Antimony
Some Usable Pigments in Glass Industry
Sodium Pigments are also used as a decolorizing agents in the glass
industry. These pigments are used as a refining agents.
Nickel Inorganics Pigments
Nickel Inorganic Pigments are used to add colors, enhance the strength in
the end glass products, and some other features in the glass products.
Cobalt Inorganics Pigments
Cobalt inorganic pigments are used in various applications. These
applications vary from adding colors, increasing strength to produce
finished glass products.
Antimony Trioxide (Sb2O3)
These pigments are also known as White Pigments. These pigments are used in
the glass industry as decolorizing agents. To remove the unwanted colors
from the glasses, these pigments can be used. There purification capacity is
very high and free from all types of impurities.