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Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium (IV) oxide or Titania, is the
naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a
pigment, it is called titanium white.
Physically Titanium Dioxide Pigments are found in white powder form. High
obscurity is present in these pigment powder. These pigment powders have
very good whiteness, very high covering capacity, and good retardation
capacity. And, due to these properties, the titanium dioxide pigments have a
wide range of application and are considered valuable. These pigments are
used in manufacturing of ink, plastic goods, paper, paints etc.
Common physical and mechanical properties of Titania (sintered
|Modulus of Rupture
|Dielectric Constant (1 MHz)
|Micro Hardness(HVO .5)
|Dissipation Factor (1 M Hz)
||5*/10 to the power 4
|Resistivity (25 degree C)
||10 to the power 12 ohm.cm
|Resistivity (700 degree C)
||2.5*10 to the power 4 ohm.cm
|Thermal expansion(RT-1000 degree C)
||9*/10 to the power 6
|Thermal Conductivity(25 degree C)
|Modulus of Electricity
||4 gm/meter cube
Applications of Titanium Dioxide
- It is used for a number of electrical applications.
- Titania is widely used as a pigment. As a pigment, it is used in
powder form to exploit its optical properties.
Sintered titanium has relatively poor mechanical properties, so its
applications are constrained.
Use of Titanium Dioxide as a pigment
The most common form of titanium dioxide as
pigment substance is its powder form. As a pigment, it provides whiteness
and opacity to paints and coatings, plastics, paper, inks, food, cosmetic
The most common form of titanium dioxide as a pigment is white pigment.
This is because, it is very white and very high refractive index.
The bright whiteness and high refractive index of titanium dioxide make it
to become as an effective opacifier for pigments. It is also used as an
opacifier in cosmetics, sunscreen, paper, paints etc.
Formation processes of Titanium Dioxide Pigments
These pigments are derived by processing the
naturally occurring rutiles or ilmenite minerals. Both, the rutiles and
ilmenite are the ores of titanium dioxide.
Manufacturing technologies of Titanium Dioxide Pigments
The processes of manufacturing Titanium
Dioxide Pigments include:
It is the first process that was used to convert ilmenite into titanium
dioxide. Some sulphate process plants have been built to produce a very big
quantity of waste iron sulfate and to manufacture low quality products for
most of the applications. Through the process, the pigments produced are
called anatase. These pigments are used mainly used in the paper industry,
ceramics and inks manufacturing.
In this process, the chlorine reacts to synthetic rutile and form volatile
titanium tetrachloride. Later on, this is oxidized to obtain iron chloride
and other impurities. To produce 5-6 tonnes of titanium dioxide pigments,
about one tonne of chlorine is needed. Chlorine process has been separated
into another subprocess that is called Chloride Process.
This process requires to get processed from ilmenite into rutile form. It
means to remove the iron components to obtain crude titanium dioxide that is
also called synthetic rutile. To obtain 1 tonne of Titanium dioxide
pigments, 1.6 tonne synthetic rutile is required.